The Macedonian legislation defines the term construction process as carrying out previous activities, preparation of project documentation, carrying out preparatory activities, building a new construction, extension or superstructure of an existing construction, reconstruction and adaptation of the existing construction that includes ground activities, setting up a building structure, carrying out construction-installation activities and final construction activities, building-in installations or equipment, and other activities necessary to complete the whole construction; while the term construction denotes everything that is made by building and is attached to the land, and constitutes a physical, technical-technological and construction whole, including the built installations, i.e. the equipment.
Any construction, depending on the purpose, should meet the basic requirements for the construction anticipated by the parameters of the urban plan or the state, i.e. local urban planning documentation or the infrastructure project and other conditions prescribed by this Law and the special laws. The basic requirements for the construction shall refer to mechanical endurance, stability and seismic protection, fire protection, sanitary and health protection, protection of the working and living environment, protection against noise, safety in the use, efficient use of energy and thermal protection, unobstructed access and movement to and in the construction, and technical characteristics of the construction products used in building.
Mechanical endurance, stability and seismic protection
The construction should be designed and built in such a manner so as, in the course of the construction operations and use, disturbance of the mechanical endurance, stability and seismic protection not to be caused, particularly:
– Collapse of the whole or part of the construction;
– Destruction of parts of the construction, the basic foundation or the equipment as a result of major deformations of the load-bearing building structure, and
– Disproportionally big deformations and damages with regard to the reason that has caused them.
For the purpose of determining the fulfillment of the conditions regarding mechanical endurance, stability and seismic protection, it is necessary to provide a positive opinion on the designed and built level of mechanical endurance, stability and seismic protection of the construction by an entity that carries out a scientific and research activity – scientific institute specialized in the field of protection of constructions against seismic actions.
The opinion on the designed and built level of mechanical endurance, stability and seismic protection of the construction shall be provided only for the constructions whose basic project, in accordance with the regulations on design, should include a construction project. The opinion on the designed level of endurance, stability and seismic protection of the construction shall refer to the engineering and construction project which is an integral part of the basic project and shall be attached to the request for obtaining a building permit by the investor.
The entity that carries out a scientific and research activity – a scientific institute specialized in the field of constructions protection against seismic actions shall be obliged to issue the opinion on the designed level of mechanical endurance, stability and seismic protection of constructions with gross developed area of up to 5.000 m2 to the investor within a period of 15 days as of the receipt of the request, that is, within a period of 30 days regarding constructions with gross developed area of over 5.000 m2 and regarding linear infrastructure constructions, or it shall be deemed that the opinion is positive, and if damages are caused in future due to such omission of actions, the obligation for damage compensation shall fall to the entity that carries out a scientific and research activity.
Opinion for the built level of mechanical endurance, stability and seismic protection of the construction is not mandatory for constructions intended for individual housing facilities with a gross developed area of up to 300 m2.
The construction shall be designed and built in such a manner that in case of fire it could:
– Preserve the load-bearing system of the structure for a certain time period,
– Prevent the spreading of the fire and smoke in the construction,
– Prevent the spreading of the fire to the neighboring constructions,
– Ensure that the people leave the construction uninjured, that is, ensure their rescue, and
– Ensure protection of the rescue teams.
Hygiene, health and protection of the working and living environment
The construction should be designed and built in such a manner so as not to pose a threat to the hygiene and health of the people, the working and living environment, especially as a result of:
– Release of dangerous substances,
– Presence of dangerous particles or gas in the air,
– Emission of dangerous radiation,
– Pollution or poisoning of water and soil,
– Improper removal of waste waters, smoke, hard or liquid waste, and
– Presence of humidity in parts of the construction.
The construction products and equipment during construction should be assembled, built-in, connected and maintained so that the effect of the chemical, physical and other influences cannot cause danger, obstruction, damage or unacceptable failures while using the construction.
Safety in use
The construction should be designed and built in such a manner so as, in the course of the use and maintenance, to avoid possible injuries of persons that may be caused by slipping, falling, hitting, burn, electric shock and explosion and by other causes that might endanger the construction safety.
Protection against noise
The designing, building and using the constructions, built-in installations and equipment should enable the noise in and out of the construction to be within the limits prescribed by the Law on Protection Against Environmental Noise and the rulebooks related thereto.
The limit values of primary indicators noise levels inside where people reside, especially where sensitive group of people reside, and for protection from harmful effects on human health, are stipulated in the appropriate article of the Law on construction and the rulebooks related thereto.
Energy efficiency and thermal savings
The construction and its heating, cooling and ventilation devices should be designed and built in such a manner so as, depending on the climate of the location, to ensure that the energy consumption in the course of its use is equal or lower than the prescribed level, as well as to meet the requirements for energy efficiency prescribed by the regulations pertaining to this matter.
Exception to the basic requirements of the construction
In case of reconstruction or adaptation of a construction entered in the National Register of Cultural Heritage, which should enable unobstructed access, movement, stay and work to persons with disabilities, an exception to certain basic requirements for the construction can be made in order to ensure unobstructed access, movement, stay and work, upon obtaining a positive opinion from the Ministry of Labor and Social Policy and obtaining consent from the state administrative body responsible for carrying out the activities in the field of culture.
Unobstructed access and movement to and in the construction
A construction for public and business purposes, constructions for housing purposes in residential buildings, as well as constructions with residential and business purpose, have to be designed and built in such a manner so as to ensure the persons with disability unobstructed access, movement, stay and work to and in the construction.
A construction for housing purposes in residential buildings, as well as a construction with residential and business purpose, with ten and more apartments, should be designed and built in such a manner so as to be adjusted for access, movement, stay and work of persons with disability in at least one apartment at each ten apartments, but not more than four apartments, and at least 3% of the total number of parking spaces in the parking lot of these buildings should be intended for persons with disability and should be marked by an appropriate horizontal and vertical signalization. In the course of construction of new, as well as in the course of reconstruction of the existing, public areas – pedestrian paths in the downtown area and in parks, the public area – pedestrian path should be designed and built so as to have a path for movement of persons with bodily disability and persons with hearing impairment.
Connection to gas infrastructure
A construction that is located at the border of a plan ambit of the general urban plan should be designed and built in so as to have a connection to the gas infrastructure.
A public purpose construction should be designed and built in so as to have a bicycle parking space that serves the facility.
Physical infrastructure for electronic communication networks for high speed transmission
A constructions with business purposes and a construction for housing purposes in residential buildings must be designed and built in such a manner so as to have a concentration point located inside or outside the building, which shall be accessible by the operators in order to make their access to the physical infrastructure in the building for high speeds possible.
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Source of the published regulations: www.slvesnik.com.mk